The Batik – A Bit of Theory and Practice
Batik is a resist method of patterning cloth. The principle of all resist techniques is that a “resist” substance, such as wax or starch paste, is applied to the surface of the cloth to prevent the dye from penetrating to those areas when the fabric is placed in the dyebath. Therefore, when the waxed cloth is removed from the dyebath the areas that have been coated with wax retain their original colour, while the unwaxed areas take on a new hue.
Some theories suggest that batik originated in China between 474BC and 221BC and that the art then spread eastward to Japan. Today, batik is practised in many parts of the world, including India, Africa, South-East Asia and Europe. However, one island, Java, is at the heart of batik design. Javanese batiks have come to be regarded as among the most beautiful and sought-after pieces in the world.
Probably the most widely recognized batik garment is the sarong, which typically consist of the skirt woven in the shape of tube, worn by both men and women. Most popular colours include red, blue, black and cream, and gold for celebrations.
Traditional recipes for batik wax are closely guarded secret. Originally, Javanese batik workers employed beewax. During the 19th century, ozokerite, a waxy paraffin substance, was imported from Europe and this has been used extensively for batik ever since. Today, a typical wax mixture contains a combination of beewax and paraffin, together with resins for adhesiveness and animal fats to aid the flow of the wax in the applicator.
The traditional tool for applying wax in Java is a tjanting or canting – a copper pot with a number of spouts through which the hot wax is poured onto fabric. The most prized batiks are worked on both the front and the back. Once the wax application is complete, the waxed fabric is left to set, before immersing it in a cold-water dyebath. Sometimes the batik worker will deliberately crush or “crackle” the wax before dyeing the cloth to create a marbled effect. After dyeing and drying, part of the wax is scraped away from the cloth before applying subsequent layers of wax and dyeing in contrasting colours. When the waxing and dyeing processes are complete, the layers of wax are removed by immersing the fabric in a cauldron of boiling water in order to melt the wax. Finally, the fabric is polished and glazed by hand using a shell.
Traditionally, batik was done on cotton and this is still considered to be the most suitable fabric since it is smooth, resilient and absorbent. For the best result, select a smooth fabric with a high thread-count, such as cotton lawn. Make sure that you wash the fabric in a hot, soapy water and rinse it well before you commence dyeing to remove any grease or impurities that may impair dye absorption.
Batik technique requires a relatively few special tools. We already mentioned tjanting, which also can be replaced with the paintbrush. Also brush can be used for covering larger areas with wax. Also, one common method of applying the wax (and more quicker and cheaper) is to use wax block or a tjap or cap. A tjap consist of a single motif or design made from copper strips soldered into a pan of hot wax and then stamped onto the surface of the cloth rather like a print block.
To maintain a flow of the wax through the tjanting, it is important that you keep the wax at constant temperature of 80C or 170F. An electric tjangtings have built-in thermostat so the temperature is controlled, but these instruments are too heavy and bulky to use.
Another useful piece of equipment is electric melting pot, also thermostatically controlled. Todays, popular substitute for the wax is gutta, a resisting liquid, packed in small tubes.It’s more practical, no need to be heated (so less dangerous) and so becames more and more popular.The original colours of Javanese batiks are indigo blue and soga brown. In contemporary batiks, colour palette is far more wider.
HOW TO MAKE A BATIK
Preparing the fabric and the frame
1.First wash the selected material to remove any remaining size (do not boil silk).
2.When dry cut the material to your preferred size leaving 5 – 10 cm for overlapping on the frame.
3.Make preliminary sketches for your design. These can be drawn or traced using a soft blunt pencil.
This can be done before or after framing. Pencil marks will be removed in the boiling out process.
4.Stretch the material as taut as possible over the edges of the frame. The fabric can be secured
using dress making pins, drawing pins or masking tape depending on the thickness of the material.
It is important that the fabric is stretched as taut as possible; this will allow the wax to be applied evenly.
Begin to pin the material from the middle on opposite sides of the frame pushing outwards,
stretching as you go.